Posts tagged ‘Web 2.0’

Social Media Metrics for Healthcare

Metrics show which approaches are successful and justify the expenditure. Social media metrics are tricky because obvious ones, such as numbers of fans and followers, may not be the measures indicating success at achieving goals.

Jennifer Schmidt, in Social Media and Health, did a class project on Social Media Metrics for Healthcare in which she identified the four most effective metrics to measure, brand mentions/sentiment; activity ratio; engagement duration; and loyalty. Learn what these are and how to measure them in her paper, Social Media Metrics for HealthCare and slides, which close with the apt and powerful message: 

Develop a message, create an audience, analyze, adjust, and engage.

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March 20, 2011 at 6:46 am 3 comments

From Twitter to Megaphones: Seven Lessons Learned about Public Health Crisis Communication

In Boston we took the availability and quality of our tap water for granted until May 1, 2010, when a major water pipe break interrupted water service to two million Greater Boston residents. Information spread quickly to citizens about the problem and what to do, all the more notable because the water main break occurred on a Saturday. In this age of consumer paranoia about withheld information, the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) was in front of cameras and online, communicating what they knew and what they were doing. Tufts University and the Boston Public Health Commission used communication channels ranging from Twitter to megaphones to get the word out. Their behind-the-scenes emergency planning processes, their response to this incident, and seven lessons learned from this short-lived crisis are applicable to many other crises.

The Evolution of the Tufts Emergency Alert System

Because I learned about the broken water main in a text message from Tufts University, where I teach, I spoke to Geoff Bartlett, Technical Services Manager in the Department of Public and Environmental Safety (DPES) at Tufts about the process they used to communicate about the broken water main. First he told me how Tufts Emergency Alert System started and evolved. Following the Virginia Tech massacre in 2007, DPES, University Relations, and University Information Technology invested in emergency notification system technology and developed policies for when and how it would be used. The Tufts Emergency Alert System was initially intended for life threatening emergencies after the events on the Virginia Tech campus showed the need for rapid and reliable campus-wide communication. In requesting student and employee contact information, Tufts made this clear since they thought people would be reluctant to participate if they anticipated inconsequential messages.

Tufts first used the emergency alert system to inform the campus of the status of a power outage in October 2008 because the email communication plan in place for this type of Tier 2 emergency wouldn’t work because of the lack of electricity. This initial use led to the revised policy that the emergency alert system should be used aggressively for dire emergencies but less aggressively when there is no threat to health, safety, or life. Almost exactly one year later, there was another power outage in October 2009, and short text messages were sent. While there was planning for H1N1, the emergency alert system was never used because there was no urgency to push messages. The third use was for the water main break.

How Tufts Creates Messages

While Tufts considered preparing messages in advance, it didn’t seem possible to anticipate every situation. Instead they created “Strunk and White” guidelines for crisis communication. Their three guiding principles for creating initial messages are:

  1. What is happening
  2. What you need to do now
  3. Where to go for more information.

Messages must be succinct because of cell phone screen size and to increase the likelihood people read them, avoid jargon and abbreviations, and be composed for easy conversion into speech. While the Tufts community is tech-savvy, they are aware that not everyone is connected all the time therefore some messaging includes spreading the word. For many emergencies, especially life-threatening ones like violent criminal incident or tornado warning, content is pre-scripted by Tufts using sources such as the Massachusetts Department of Public Health.

In the case of the water main break, Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency sent out the initial message. When Geoff received the message on Saturday, May 1, he was in a command post on campus with police, fire, and EMS personnel where they were managing the public safety aspects of the Spring Fling concert. Because there was no reported danger or health threat, email was used initially. Later in the day, after Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick declared a state of emergency, DPES fully activated the emergency alert system. In addition, email, word of mouth, Twitter, and the web were used to spread information.

I asked Geoff if there was concern about any health issues arising from students who drank tap water. He said that there was an FAQ that included the consequences of ingesting water. However the information they were receiving from the state agencies, and therefore their focus, was on the status of the water main break and what to do, such as the boil water order. Student feedback after the crisis ended was largely positive but included that there were terms, like boil water order, that they didn’t understand.

The Boston Public Health Commission Emergency Preparedness Process

To see how a public health organization responded, I looked at the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC) website and spoke to Susan Harrington. She had guest-lectured in my Online Consumer Health course about their use of the web and social media and I wanted to see how they deployed them in an emergency like the water main break.

BPHC and its partners participate in emergency preparedness exercises to refine their coordination and response. In 2007, BPHC worked with the postal office on a large-scale exercise and last year they responded to the real-life H1N1 epidemic. Just last month, BPHC invited businesses, health care settings, and other partner organization to a Flu Review, where they discussed how BPHC responded, including what they did well, what didn’t work, and made recommendations as they prepare for the next flu season this fall.

How the Boston Public Health Commission Alerted Residents

Susan was in a city not affected by the burst water main on the Saturday the news was announced and received a call from work alerting her to the situation. Working in concert with federal, state, and city agencies, the Mayor’s Office and BPHC relayed important information and coordinated response efforts. The immediate issue was reaching people, which the BPHC first did through Twitter, Facebook, and their website. The Mayor’s Office posted information on its own sites and used its reverse 911 phone system to alert residents. Boston police officers drove up and down streets using megaphones and loudspeakers. BPHC set up conference calls with area hospitals and staffers were sent out to food-service establishments who needed to quickly adapt their procedures for the boil water order. Throughout the weekend, the Mayor’s 24-hour hotline added staffers to help answer any questions residents had. The Mayor’s Office and BPHC also called upon their partners, which included faith-based organizations, schools, and businesses, to spread the message through their own channels, and asked residents to inform the elderly who may not have access to the web and social media. The challenge was responding quickly and reaching as many people, wired or not, as possible. These techniques had been used to spread the word about H1N1 vaccine availability.

Twitter proved very effective at relaying up-to-the-minute news. While Twitter is global, people use the #Boston hashtag and other filters to get local information including traffic updates, event listings, and even local celebrity sightings. Not long after boil water order was issued, the Twitterverse was abuzz with the news – even dubbing a new hashtag for the emergency: #aquapocolypse. The most influential – and most followed – Twitter profiles were not only pushing out timely information, but passing on questions to BPHC, allowing them to respond and dispel any myths.

Creating Fact Sheets

No matter what the crisis, some people worry and they are the ones who especially need facts. One of the main BPHC priorities was posting information and fact sheets to the BPHC website. As a homeowner Susan knew what questions she had, but she had to consider the broad demographics of Boston in terms of where people live, the languages they speak, and their access to water.

BPHC worked with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to create easy-to-read and culturally appropriate guidelines for the boil water order for Bostonians, including translating the fact sheets into multiple languages using a professional translation company with proofing by Commission staffers. These materials were later updated to reflect the lifting of the boil water order and subsequent flushing out instructions.

I asked Susan about the extent to which they date materials. In a crisis, knowing that an update is available and when it was issued is crucial. Throughout the flu response and boil water order, they posted dates on their websites, but in a non-emergency she said it is a challenge to keep an entire website updated. Fact sheets often are dated but other online materials may not be.

Health Issues and Disease Tracking

I taught a course in Shanghai once and remembered the advice I was given about the level of bacteria being higher in the tap water than Americans are used to. I slipped back into Shanghai-mode and remembered to rinse my toothbrush with bottled water and the myriad of other pointers I had been given. I was curious if Boston residents who drank tap water during the emergency expressed health concerns. Susan said that if pathogens were in the water, people may have experienced minor gastrointestinal illness after consuming that water. A greater concern would be for residents who are immunocompromised.

The BPHC uses a sophisticated surveillance system to track diseases in Boston. (In fact, Boston has been nationally recognized for its disease tracking system.) Health care settings report diseases to BPHC, which in turn, conducts a follow-up investigation and identifies the source of the illness, such as food contamination.  These disease patterns are tracked over time. In the case of the boil water order, there was no spike in gastrointestinal illnesses. Google has a less formal process of tracking disease patterns, collecting search phrases to find trends including the spread of illness. Google’s H1N1 flu trend matched up fairly well to Massachusetts’ trend lines.

Lessons Learned

Susan Harrington and Geoff Bartlett both thought the MWRA did a great job of letting people know what they knew, what they didn’t know, and what they were doing to find answers and repair the pipe. This was essential not just to inform people but to allay paranoia and fears given well-publicized situations like Toyota and Vioxx where information was not publicly disclosed in a timely fashion.

Some lessons learned about rapid health communication from the water main break are:

  1. Develop a rubric to assess the type of crisis as it impacts your institution. When the crisis is over, review, solicit feedback, and refine using what the military call an After Action Review.
  2. Identify and coordinate with partners in advance. In the case of the water main break, an impressive number of groups coordinated efforts seemingly seamlessly and, in many cases, behind the scenes. Ria Convery, Communications Director for the MWRA, told me that their response can be attributed to the 2-3 drills they perform every year “on a number of different scenarios ranging from dam failures to hurricanes to flu epidemics. Sometimes we perform a ‘tabletop’ exercise and sometimes we involve the whole universe of state agencies and run through an entire ‘event’. Every single drill, no matter the topic, provides an important opportunity for people to think through and be prepared for the worst case.”
  3. Prepare a communication plan for each type of crisis. While newspapers write obituaries for famous people in advance, you can’t anticipate all eventualities. However, you can prepare guidelines and immediately use them. Flexibility needs to be built in to communication plans, even to the definition of a life threatening emergency and when to select modalities that “wake you up” or more passive ones like email.
  4. Carefully construct messages to convey needed information succinctly. High-quality materials take time to produce because it’s important to first gather facts and then create and review accurate, appropriate, and easy-to-understand information, be they short like text and Twitter messages, or less constrained by length. Dating material is especially important in a crisis.
  5. Create messages that inform and allay unnecessary fears. Think like – or talk to – your target audience. Be careful about jargon, although everyone in Greater Boston quickly became conversant quickly with “MWRA” and “boil water order”, which are not in the common vernacular. Terminology was also an issue with H1N1: swine flu was the term adopted by the press initially, but it was distracting because of the association with pigs.
  6. Use social media, which can be both fast and local. Use emerging informal partners, who Malcolm Gladwell calls mavens, to facilitate the spread of messages in Twitter. But even when people are wired, they aren’t always online. The low tech megaphone and word of mouth works best for some.
  7. Use crises to educate people. While the water main break left many people with a heightened appreciation for their tap water, it was short-lived. However there may be a missed opportunity here to educate people about water sources, safety, and conservation as well as about emergency response.

June 8, 2010 at 8:47 pm 13 comments

Sukar Ala Sukar- A Website Design for Diabetes Education and Support for Saudi Arabian and Middle Eastern Children

Sukar Ala Sukar is a website for 4th and 5th grade Saudi Arabian and Middle Eastern children to learn about diabetes. Nada Farhat, MD, designed this in my fall course, Online Consumer Health, and she and I revised her project to submit to the 2010 DiabetesMine™ Design Challenge, a competition “to encourage creative new tools for improving life with diabetes”, in the hopes that we would get funding to implement and evaluate the site.

Here is our description: We designed a website to meet the education and support needs of children with diabetes, at risk, or with diabetic family members who live in Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries or whose families are from these countries. Culture and language (English and Arabic) are embedded in the website design which includes separate areas for girls and boys in keeping with societal norms. The website goals are to increase awareness of diabetes and debunk myths children might have, which are carried out though text, video, games, recipes, and activities. Social media further reinforces education and provides peer support. Our goal is to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of the website with Saudi children in the US and in Saudi Arabia.

To me, this project is fascinating in three ways: the impact of culture on effective design; design of a bilingual site when one language is read left-to-right and the other right-to-left; and how health website design for children is different than for adults. Nada’s final paper for the course addresses many of these through her competitive analysis and research. Our initial answers to the culture question are in the entry. For instance, one way to address cultural norms is to separate the site by gender. Another is to use drawings of people since photographs of girls violate cultural norms. We know that bilingual design can be challenging for languages that are more similar than English and Arabic, such as English and Spanish, especially when one language uses more characters than the other to express the same thing. We also know the importance of localization. And for children’s design we want to be consistent with best practices yet be fresh.

We welcome your feedback.

May 6, 2010 at 8:30 am 1 comment

Social Media at Sarasota Memorial Health Care System

Shawn Halls tweets for Sarasota Memorial Health Care System (SMH). He has been Market Research Manager at SMH for 12 years. Through him I met his manager, Peter Taylor, the Director of Marketing (pictured to the left). Peter essentially runs an internal ad agency for SMH responsible for both internal and external communication. I interviewed them on February 18, 2010 about SMH’s Web strategy and their use of social media.

Lisa: Start by describing SMH’s Web presence.

Peter Taylor, Director of Marketing, SMH

Peter: Early on we identified that a digital customer engagement platform was fundamental to the future success of all forms of marketing and communications at SMH. The components of this are our website, Twitter, Facebook, MySpace, Delicious, YouTube, Flickr, an external blog focused on a new bed tower construction project, and an internal blog/vlog written by our CEO.

Lisa: Why did you decide to use multiple social media technologies?

Peter: We decided to cast a wide net to increase the likelihood of reaching all of our target audience.  There are clear demographic differences; for example, MySpace turned out to be a great place to reach young mothers. Also, we use them differently; Twitter by definition requires quick, concise, newsworthy messaging whereas Facebook is more leisurely and facilitates more of an intimate relationship.

Lisa: What did you see as your opportunity when you introduced social media?

Peter: We wanted to focus on preventative healthcare and saw an opportunity to engage with our audience of patients and get involved in their daily lives in environments where they feel more comfortable (i.e., without being invasive). The advantage to patients beyond education was that if they need to use our services (hospital or outpatient), everything is more familiar and less alienating. They aren’t meeting us for the first time while in a gown being stuck with needles.

Lisa: How do you know what’s effective?

Peter: We use qualitative and quantitative plus anecdotal metrics. We use Google analytics, not just to see how many visitors we have to our website, but to see where they come from and how they navigate through our site. Our website gets 80,000 visits a month (excluding internal traffic), most of whom find it through our url or a search engine. More and more are coming directly from our social media sites. For example we get almost 5,000 visits a month from our Facebook page.  We use focus groups on and offline to track our presence and improve our content, navigation, etc. We also continually elicit feedback from our social media sites which has been invaluable.

Lisa: Who actually manages and uses social media for SMH?

Peter: Each person in our marketing department is the CEO of one social media site. This way they each develop an expertise and can dedicate the time needed to stay active.

Lisa: Can you give me any time estimates?

Peter: Shawn, for instance, uses twitter. Probably on average 30 – 45 minutes a day but it varies.

Shawn: I registered @smhcs in November of 2008 but didn’t start actively tweeting until March 2009.  My vision was to try out social media.  In keeping with our goal of connecting to and engaging with our community before they need us, social media is ideal.  I love Twitter because it allows us to respond to customer service issues in near real-time.  Since I am the only person currently tweeting at SMH, the policies that guide my tweets are mostly between my ears.  We are in the process of opening Twitter up to the rest of the Sarasota Memorial staff, though, so we’re working on a more formal approach that will be shared in the coming weeks. Right now I don’t have a separate Twitter account for just personal use.  I don’t use our Twitter account to just promote our hospital, certainly I do that too, but I’ve tried to interject professional and personal tweets in the Sarasota Memorial account to add a little personality to it.  Therefore, I’ve never really felt a need to have a separate Shawn Halls account.  What you see in @smhcs…is Shawn Halls.

Lisa: Do you also use social media internally?

Peter: Internally there is limited access to social media right now. We are taking baby steps. As Shawn said, we just granted internal access to Twitter 60 days ago. We recently developed social media guidelines for our 4,000 employees which are still in the process of being implemented.

Lisa: What are the internal concerns?

Peter: HIPAA violations, privacy, and somebody posting/saying something stupid they would regret later.

Lisa: Are there any concerns about disgruntled employees or whistleblowers?

Peter: Yes, these are valid concerns but we would treat them like any other situation where this may arise, independent of technology.

Lisa: What about externally – have there been any concerns raised?

Peter: Nothing yet but we will continue to monitor it very closely.

Lisa: What is your biggest success to date?

Peter: Traditionally marketing has been a top-down exercise but that is reversed in social media. As a result our biggest success has been the way we have reconfigured our entire marketing activity to start with the consumer and not the product. This consumer-centric philosophy has improved our overall marketing and communications. We truly now have an consumer engagement platform.

Lisa: What has been your most serious problem?

Peter: Getting employees on board when they can’t access all social media sites from work at this point. We are very fortunate to have a visionary CEO who has embraced our digital strategy and let us “get our hands dirty” before we had all the answers and who has given us permission to fail if necessary.

February 20, 2010 at 2:03 am 2 comments

Blogging for Health: Survey about Why People Blog about an Illness

Pam Ressler, RN, BSN, HN-BC, one of my students, and I are researching why people choose, or don’t choose, to start and maintain a blog about a health condition. We would appreciate your answers to these questions. We will publish the results of our study here as well. Please respond in a comment or email me.

If you have a blog:

When and why did you start your blog?
What do you see at the primary reason(s) you continue blogging?
How often do you typically post?
What types of feedback do you receive? How many comments do you typically get to each post?
Do you know how many unique visitors you have during a particular time period (say 2009)?
Do you do anything to promote your blog or attract new readers?
Do you use your real name in your blog?
Do you read other blogs by people with health issues and, if so, which and why?
Have you shown your blog to your doctor or other healthcare professional?

If you don’t blog:

Why didn’t you blog about your illness? Did you consider blogging about your illness?
What do you see as the primary reason(s) you didn’t blog about your illness?
If you have discussed your illness with individuals besides your healthcare team, how have you done so (phone, email, in-person support groups, discussion boards, etc.)?
Do you read other blogs by people with health issues and, if so, which and why?

If you know of someone who blogs about their health, please forward this to them or let us know how to contact the person.

January 23, 2010 at 8:50 am 29 comments

Every Person Has a Right to be Healthy: An Interview with Susan Harrington from the Boston Public Health Commission

Susan Harrington, the assistant director of communications at the Boston Public Health Commission, was a guest lecturer in Online Consumer Health. From infectious disease to violence prevention and nutrition, Susan promotes the work of the Commision’s 33 program areas. Using a combination of traditional and social media, like Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, Susan designs targeted social marketing campaigns to prevent disease and protect the health of Boston’s residents. I interviewed Susan about her recent initiatives to improve Boston’s health.

Lisa Gualtieri: During your guest lecture, you talked about some of the successful initiatives to reach teenagers with health messages. Which campaign was most successful and why?

Susan Harrington: The Boston SexED campaign. We went directly to Boston teens to ask them what was important to them. They didn’t just inform the campaign; they developed the concept, actively worked to get the word out, and helped their fellow teens answer these important questions. The Facebook conversations were lively while informative. We had a great reach in terms of the number of teens that either saw the campaign or participated in it. We continue to look at the hard data to see if there is any decrease in the number of sexually transmitted infections among teens.

Lisa Gualtieri: H1N1 is obviously on many people’s minds. What are the types of information you are providing? Can you also talk about your use of twitter to provide updates on line lengths at clinics?

Susan Harrington: We are providing everything there is to know about the flu, both seasonal and H1N1. This includes how to prevent the flu, the difference between the cold and flu, what to do if you get the flu, vaccine safety, and clinic information. As much as we are trying to get this important information out, we are always listening to what questions people may have. We develop videos and information guides to address their questions. In fact, our flu prevention campaign and video, “Talkin’ ‘bout the Flu”, is being replicated in other cities and counties nationwide for its innovative approach to the topic. In addition to traditional marketing, we used Facebook and Twitter to relay our message, garnering attention across the globe. Speaking of which, the Boston Public Health Commission is hosting a number of H1N1 flu clinics throughout the winter. We have used Twitter and Facebook to provide updates, including what people should bring, line lengths, etc. People responded back to us saying they checked online before they walked out the door, or even on their phone, so they were fully informed when they got to the clinic. They helped to retweet our posts and even posted some of their own. We love all of our Twitter followers and Facebook fans.

Lisa Gualtieri: What are the most common languages used in Boston? Why did you decide to use a translation program instead of providing translations of key information?

Susan Harrington: Boston is incredibly diverse. In addition to English, the top five spoken languages in no particular order are Spanish, Vietnamese, Chinese (Mandarin/Cantonese), Haitian Creole, and Portuguese. All of our materials go through a rigorous translation process. First, if there are funds available, any document is translated by a native speaker at a translation company. The document is then reviewed and edited by a native speaker on-staff for accuracy. (If there are no funds, then the native speaker on-staff completes the translation and is a reviewed by a second native speaker.) We tried to provide the same quality of translation at one time for our website. However, because the website changes daily, it is difficult to update the translated versions at the same fast rate. Also, we wanted to provide a larger range of languages, such as Albanian and Russian. We reviewed multiple online translation mechanisms and our on-staff translators were a key component in this process. Machine translation is never 100% accurate, but we hope to provide some translated content. However, our key information, such as fact sheets, brochures, etc., are all translated by humans. We don’t want to lose anything in translation and lose the trust of the residents we are trying to serve and protect.

Lisa Gualtieri: Have you gotten feedback on the translation services?

Susan Harrington: For the most part, the human translation is accurate and easy-to-understand. But, just as any two English speakers may use different expressions, so too with non-English speakers. For example, a Spanish-speaker from Puerto Rico may have different expressions than someone from Guatemala. We aim to use the language and expressions most common in Boston, but there are always differences.

Lisa Gualtieri: With no budget constraints, what would you do next?

Susan Harrington: Wow, what a question. In my role in communications, I have loved bringing attention to important issues, starting the difficult conversations, and hopefully improving the lives and health of my fellow Bostonians. If money were no object, I would expand the number of marketing campaigns to focus on overlooked projects and extend the great campaigns that we have had. Often times though, it’s more than about money. It’s about getting everyone involved in an issue because, even though they may not think it, they can make a difference. Every community, every person, has a right to be healthy.

January 14, 2010 at 4:37 am 5 comments

WebMD Gets an “A” for Swine Flu Guide and a “C” for Guide to Never Feeling Tired Again

WebMD.com is often listed as the most popular health Web site. I find their design is too busy and their content varies considerably in quality. Every time I look at WebMD for a specific purpose, I am distracted by the ads, such as a video advertisement playing next to the text I am reading – how distracting is that? Sometimes I am there for a specific purpose and find myself clicking on the slide show or provocatively-titled articles – did someone say stickiness?

Some of their content deserves an “A”. In an analysis, their Swine Flu Guide was superior to the CDC’s and other sites at providing answers to the questions likely to be on healthcare consumer’s minds.

Other content is less impressive. The most recent article that I read when I was at WebMD for a different purpose was the irresistibly-titled guide to never feeling tired again. I was surprised that the guide, subtitled “22 ways to tackle life’s biggest energy zappers”, was from Redbook Magazine since I thought WebMD wrote their own content. The first page of the four-page article was about how to “Energize Your Diet”. It recommended that I eat breakfast to feel perkier, stay hydrated, etc. While I questioned is I wanted to feel perkier, most of the advice seemed reasonable.

I had just finished teaching a course and asked one my students, Alicia Romano, a master’s candidate in the Friedman Nutrition School at Tufts University School of Medicine and a Dietetic Intern at the Frances Stern Nutrition Center, for her opinion on the article. She responded,

As far as the nutrition related pieces are concerned (generally the first page of the article) the information is pretty accurate in terms of increasing your energy throughout the day (keeping your blood sugars stable and staying hydrated).  I haven’t read much related to the omega-3’s and increasing your energy, so that was interesting.  As far as the other information was concerned, it sounded a little “fluffy” to me, to be honest.  I think all of the tips are good, but overall, I think getting enough sleep, staying hydrated, exercising, and eating healthy and frequently throughout the day are the major keys to energy.  I was not too happy to see that they reviewed some of the new “products” at the end.  I have never even heard of half of those, and I’m sure most readers haven’t either.  If anything they are going to be informing readers of these products that they shouldn’t even try.  Their reviews weren’t on the efficacy either, just a simple quotation. I think the title is a little deceiving as well, but then again, it is from a magazine (Redbook).  I was actually surprised to see they would post a magazine article on WebMD (Personal correspondence, A.R, August 11, 2009).

I appreciate Alicia’s assessment and, based on her analysis and mine, I give the article a “C”. Some good suggestions but only a few references, no links, an introduction with only the merest hint of the content, and no conclusions or resources for further exploration. While WebMD provides many mechanisms to share an article, there are none to comment on or rate the accuracy or usefulness of an article so neither Alicia or I could post our feedback. I looked for the original Redbook article and found that while it seemed essentially the same, although split onto more pages, the links to useful sites such as the American Dietetic Association (ADA) were removed in the WebMD version. Can I lower the “C” to a “C-“?

August 29, 2009 at 11:37 pm 1 comment

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Lisa Gualtieri, PhD, ScM

Lisa GualtieriLisa Gualtieri is Assistant Professor at Tufts University School of Medicine in the Department of Public Health and Community Medicine. She is Director of the Certificate Program in Digital Health Communication. Lisa teaches Designing Health Campaigns using Social Media, Social Media and Health, Mobile Health Design, and Digital Strategies for Health Communication. Contact Lisa: lisa.gualtieri@tufts.edu

@lisagualtieri


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